- During the sixteenth century, Europe experienced rapid and profound changes in its religious life as a result of the Protestant Reformation. This upheaval against the Roman Catholic Church challenged the very foundation of a society that had already been turned topsy-turvy by the unrest of the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance revival of classical culture. This week we will explore the causes, course, and consequences of the Protestant Reformation, from its origins in Germany to its expansion throughout Europe, as well as the Catholic Reformation that followed. As we will discover, this religious revolution also impacted political, social, intellectual, and cultural life.
- Chapter 13: The High Middle Ages (Pages 000-297)
- Chapter 14: The Later Middle Ages, 1300-1500 (Page 298-328)
- Discussion #13: What were some of the topics Luther raised in the 95 Theses? What did he see as the major problems with the religious practices of his day?
- Discussion #14: Identify the basic causes, both political and religious, of the bitter struggles of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in France, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Netherlands. Describe the political and religious dimensions of the settlement of each of these conflicts.
- Essay #3: Read Luther’s 95 Theses at the Internet Christian Library. Martin Luther wrote these propositions in order to engage in a debate with fellow theologians. How do the issues Luther present for debate illustrate the problems in the Church of his day?